Jesse Tree 11. “Balaam’s Messianic Vision”

Scripture: Num 22–24

This strange story portrays a false prophet whose message was legitimate—despite his desperate desire to fulfill his evil commission from King Balak and strike it rich. He’s almost the mirror image of Jonah, who was a true prophet with a desperate desire to avoid completing his merciful commission from the King of kings.

False Prophet

Speaking for the Lord

Some reckon Balaam to be a bona fide prophet who went off kilter pursuing King Balak’s money. Others judge Balaam to be a sinister prophet, whom God coerced into blessing Israel. Actually, the Bible story mixes up imagery when describing Balaam. On the one hand, Balaam took pains to portray himself as an obedient servant of the Lord. He claimed to speak the words of the Lord and disclaimed the ability to say anything but what the Lord allowed.1

A Blind “Seer”

On the other hand, the narrator refuses to call him a prophet and keeps depicting him with almost comical satire, as a “seer” who’s quite unable to “see” what any ass can see (Num 22:22–30). A later book described him as one “who used magic to tell the future” (Josh 13:22), and the rest of the Bible record certainly consolidates a negative reputation for him.2

Pagan Curse Expert

Rental Prophet
Balaam and his donkey
“Balaam and His Ass,” by James Tissot

So Balaam was a rental prophet, an exorcist and curse expert available for hire. Hiring someone to curse your enemies has a long and despicable history, from ancient Near Eastern times through to at least the Roman period. An unknown thief steals something, you go to a temple and pay a curse expert to put a curse on the undetected culprit: May the gods strike him with disease, financial ruin, and death in his family. You prepare to go into battle, you call in the curse expert to lay a crippling curse on the enemy camp: May the gods throw them into confusion, provoke an insurrection among the enemy soldiers, or turn them into trembling women on the day of battle. This kind of stuff would have been Balaam’s specialty. Today he would probably have a web site, a late-night call-in TV program, and a toll-free number to call to get a free information packet.

International Reputation

Balaam appeared to have had an international reputation. He was from Beor in Mesopotamia, the region of modern Iraq. Balak the king of Moab ruled the region alongside the southeastern bank of the Dead Sea. Just as the wise old sages of the larger region were known in foreign courts, it appears any king’s address book would have had contact information on a few curse masters from near and far.

Even though we see that Balaam was unable to curse Israel and earn his fees as a curse expert, he eventually succeeded in seducing Israel into worshiping the Baal of Peor (Num 25). He couldn’t curse Israel, but he succeeded in getting Israel to live so that God himself would curse them (Num 31:16).

Accurate Prophecy

Accepting Balak’s Job Offer

Balaam and His Ass
Rembrandt (1609–1669), “Balaam and His Ass”

Balaam refused the Balak’s first offer, in spite the rich commission he dearly wanted to collect (Num 22:1–14). But he accepted a second offer in which Balak upped the fees (22:15–21). Balaam spoke of “the LORD my God” (22:18), perhaps hinting that since he served Israel’s own God Yahweh he might be more successful than others at making good on a curse against Israel. God told him no, but then let him go with a strong warning not to do anything but what he told him to do (Num 22:20). Nonetheless, God threw up barriers when Balaam made haste to take Balak’s curse contract (Num 22:22–35). Only his donkey could see the barriers, because Balaam had an eye only for payday. Still, when he came before king Balak, Balaam warned that he probably wouldn’t be able to deliver on a curse (Num 22:36–41).

Pagan Rituals and Reluctant Blessings

Balaam’s first ritual and prophecy described a people whom God had already blessed (Num 23:1–12). His second ritual and prophecy announced, “no curse can touch Jacob; no magic has any power against Israel” (Num 23:13–26, esp. v. 23). No high-priced international curse expert was going to lay a glove—or tongue—on Israel. In disgust, king Balak told Balaam, “Fine, but if you won’t curse them, at least don’t bless them” (Num 23:25). In spite of that frustrated flare-up, king Balak opted for one more try (Num 23:27).

Dropping the Divination

Finally, Balaam dropped the rituals of a pagan curse expert; “he did not resort to divination as before” (Num 24:1). All along, he had been claiming to operate as a prophet of the Lord but actually operating as a pagan seer would (see Deut 18:9–14). And the result in Balaam’s third prophecy was the outright blessing that king Balak had feared. I suppose Balaam feared it too. It would certainly cost him his paycheck, and it could have cost him his life.

Messianic Oracle

Blessing and Cursing
Balaam blessing the Israelites
Balaam blessing the Israelites (Num 24:1–5, 10–13), illustration from Figures de la Bible, published by P. de Hondt in The Hague in 1728.

Balaam’s fourth prophecy turned to one of the noblest of the Old Testament messianic visions (Num 24:14–19). This was a pagan prophet; however, if ever there were a case in the Old Testament, the words of Peter describe what Balaam was doing: “No prophecy in Scripture ever came from the prophet’s own understanding, or from human initiative. No, those prophets were moved by the Holy Spirit, and they spoke from God” (2 Pet 1:20–21). As much as he hated it, Balaam had no curse for Israel. Indeed, he had moved from implying a blessing on Israel (Num 23:1–12), to pronouncing an explicit blessing (Num 23:13–26), to threatening Israel’s enemies in general (Num 23:27–24:13), and to threatening Moab itself (Num 24:14–19).

Messianic Note

In “the future…. far in the distant future” God would raise up a “star” from Jacob (Num 24:14, 17). The “star” was a common ancient Near Eastern image for a ruler (Gen 37:9; Isa 14:12–13). A “scepter” would come from Israel, which would “crush the foreheads of Moab’s people” (Num 24:17).

Jewish Tradition

Naturally, Jewish literature soon began interpreting Balaam’s prophecies messianically. For example, the Qumran community around the western shores of the Dead Sea looked for the star and scepter, a future priest and king. Some hailed the leader of the second Jewish revolt (AD 132–135) as Bar-Kochba (“Son of the Star”). Some Christian commentators play down any idea of direct messianic prophecy here; they see Balaam’s prophecy fulfilled essentially in the Davidic dynasty. Indeed, David provided the initial fulfillment of this prophecy; however, in so doing, he foreshadowed the coming of the Messiah.

New Testament Usage

Certainly the New Testament usage of Balaam imagery3 is in keeping with the expectation that Jesus Christ was the ruler that Balaam prophesied.4 The trajectory set out in Balaam’s prophecy is fulfilled when we hear, “the world has now become the Kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he will reign forever and ever” (Rev 11:15).

Questions, Reflections, and Commitments

  • Reflect on how the blessings of God cannot be denied to those who follow him (Num 22–24), but note that disobedience and apostasy can’t be faced with calm assurance of divine blessing (Num 25; 31:16).
  • Note how Balaam should warn the modern believer: (1) Even signs that God is using you and even speaking through you is no guarantee of your salvation; (2) mixing the call of God and a love for money is the way to hell (2 Pet 2:15).

Ornament for the day

  • Click here to download cross-stitch patterns for all the daily ornaments.
  • Click here to download a simple coloring book for all the daily ornaments.


  1. Num 22:1–21, 31–41; 23:1–24:25.
  2. Num 31:8, 16; Deut 23:3–6; Josh 13:22; 24:9–10; Judg 11:23–25; Neh 13:1–3; 2 Pet 2:15–16; Jude 11; Rev 2:14.
  3. Matt 2:2, 7, 9–10, 16; Rev 2:28; 22:16.
  4. John 1:20; 4:25–26; Matt 26:63–64; Mark 14:61–62; Luke 22:67–70

Author: Dale A. Brueggemann

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